عنوان مقاله [English]
This paper attempts to discuss the Merton’s theoretical approach toward the sociology of science. First the paper discusses the issue and objectives of research and afterward his intellectual dimensions and layers on the sociology of science particularly the ethics of science are presented. Based on Merton’s functionalism approach the science is considered as an institute or subsystem which interacts with other social and cultural institutions or subsystems in the society. In this respect, he explores the institutions and conditions which deal with the creation of science and analyzes these conditions in terms of external and internal aspects of science. With an emphasis on the ethics of science, he considers it as a complex set of principles and norms which are linked to the scientist. Since these norms possess instructional values, therefore, they are considered legitimate. He calls them, the institutional requirements. According to Merton the sociology of science is a medium-range approach. With an emphasis on this belief, he avoids the macro-epistemology of philosophy of science and micro-thinking regarding the history of scientific thinking. This paper is based on the scientific books and resources which are written by Merton or the scientists who have been influenced by him.