جغرافیای اقتصادی و اهمیت شبکه‌های محلی دانش در خوشه‌های صنعتی؛ مورد مطالعه خوشه نفت، گاز و پتروشیمی خوزستان

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکترای سیاست‌گذاری علم و فناوری، دانشگاه علم و صنعت ایران، دانشکده مهندسی پیشرفت، تهران، ایران

2 استادیار علوم اقتصادی دانشگاه علم و صنعت، دانشکده مهندسی پیشرفت، تهران، ایران

چکیده

در سال‌های اخیر توجه روزافزونی به نقش شبکه‌های دانش در رشد اقتصادی مناطق شده است. باور عمومی بر این است که رشد منطقه‌ای تا حدود زیادی تابع ارزش خلق شده درون شبکه‌های محلی دانش توسط بازیگران متعدد (بنگاه‌های صنعتی، نهادهای دانشی و نهادهای دولتی) است. تعامل‌های میان این بازیگران در شبکه‌های محلی اتفاق می‌افتند. هدف از این مقاله درک بهتر شبکه‌های محلی دانش به عنوان عامل مهم رشد منطقه‌ای و بررسی نقش نهادهای دانشی منطقه در این شبکه‌هاست. در این تحقیق، برای ارائه شواهد تجربی از ویژگی‌های شبکه‌های محلی دانش و نقش دانشگاه‌ها، مراکز تحقیقاتی و نهادهای حمایتی در آنها، از مطالعه موردی با رویکرد تحلیل شبکه‌های اجتماعی و نیز به منظور جمع‌آوری داده‌های تجربی دست اول از روش پیمایش نوآوری و پیمایش شبکه استفاده شده است. نتایج این تحقیق نشانگر ساختار متفاوت شبکه‌های رصد و پایش، جابه‌جایی نیروی کار و همکاری‌ است. همچنین، نهادهای دانشی منطقه در هر یک از شبکه‌های‌ دانشی خوشه صنعتی از جایگاه متفاوتی برخوردارند. از میان تعاملات بنگاه‌ها با نهادهای دانشی بیشترین تعداد ارتباطات به تعامل با دانشگاه‌های منطقه تعلق دارد. همچنین، دانشگاه‌های محلی مهم‌ترین منبع جذب نیروی کار تحصیلکرده در منطقه محسوب می‌شوند. اما میزان همکاری‌ها میان بنگاه‌های صنعتی و نهادهای دانشی بسیار کم‌رنگ است. به طور کلی، بنگاه‌های دارای واحد رسمی تحقیق و توسعه در مقایسه با واحدهای فاقد واحد تحقیق و توسعه، در هر سه شبکه دانشی، حضور پررنگ‌تری دارند.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Economic Geography and Importance of Local Knowledge Networks in Industrial Clusters; the Case of Khuzestan Oil, Gas and Petrochemical Cluster

نویسندگان [English]

  • Safora Allahy 1
  • Saeed Shavvalpour 2
1 PhD Student in Science and Technology Policy, Department of Progress Engineering, Iran University of Science and Technology, Tehran, Iran
2 Assistant Professor, PhD in Economics, Department of Progress Engineering, Iran University of Science and Technology, Tehran, Iran
چکیده [English]

In recent years, more attention has been paid to the role of knowledge networks in the economic growth of regions. It is widely believed that regional growth is largely dependent on the value created within local knowledge networks by multiple actors (firms, knowledge institutions, and public institutions). Interactions between these actors take place within local networks. The purpose of this study is to better understand local knowledge networks as an important determinant of regional growth and to investigate the role of knowledge institutions in these networks in a cluster. In this study, a case study with the social network analysis approach was adapted to provide empirical evidence of the characteristics of local knowledge networks and the role of universities, research centers, and support institutions. Innovation survey and network survey methods were used to collect primary data. The results of this research show the structural difference in monitoring, labor mobility, and collaboration networks, and also the different positions of knowledge institutions in each knowledge networks. Among the linkages of firms with knowledge institutions, the largest number of ties is related to interactions with universities in the region. Also, local universities are the most important source of recruitment of skilled personnel in the region. But the level of collaboration and monitoring between industrial firms and knowledge institutions is low. Firms with formal R&D units are more active in knowledge networks, overall.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • : Economic Geography
  • Local Knowledge Networks
  • Oil
  • Gas and Petrochemical Industrial Cluster
  • Social Network Analysis
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