الزام‌ها، چالش‌ها و راهکارهای سیاستی اندازه‌گیری هزینه‏ کرد تحقیق‏ و توسعه در ایران

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استادیار، گروه تامین مالی و اقتصاد علم، فناوری و نوآوری، مرکز تحقیقات سیاست علمی کشور، ایران، تهران

2 دانشیار، گروه مدیریت صنعتی، دانشکده مدیریت و حسابداری، دانشگاه علامه طباطبائی، ایران، تهران

چکیده

هدف از این تحقیق شناسایی الزام‌ها و چالش‌های اندازه‌گیری هزینه‏کرد تحقیق ‏و توسعه در ایران و پیشنهاد راهکارهای سیاستی برای رفع آن چالش‌ها است. به این منظور ابتدا مطالعات کتابخانه‌ای برای شناسایی الزام‌ها و بررسی وضعیت موجود اندازه‌گیری و گزارش‌دهی هزینه‌کرد تحقیق‏ و توسعه در ایران انجام شد. سپس به کمک پیمایش با استفاده از مصاحبه‌های نیمه‌ساختاریافته با خبرگان و کارشناسان مهم‌ترین دستگاه‌های مرتبط، چالش‌های اندازه‌گیری هزینه‏کرد تحقیق ‏و توسعه به دست آمد. روش نمونه‌گیری در این تحقیق، نمونه‌گیری هدفمند غیرتصادفی است. تحلیل یافته‌ها ﻧﺸـﺎن ﻣﻲ‏دﻫﺪ مهم‌ترین چالش‌های اندازه‌گیری و گزارش‌دهی هزینه‏کرد تحقیق‏ و توسعه در ایران عبارت‌اند از: فقدان استاندارد ملی و مورد توافق مجریان برای تعریف تحقیق ‏و توسعه، نبود شفافیت در تعریف ردیف‌های بودجه‌ای تحقیق ‎‏و توسعه در بخش دولت، فقدان پیمایش کارگاه‌های صنعتی کوچک و خرد دارای فعالیت تحقیق ‏و توسعه و مؤسسه‌ها و نهادهای غیرانتفاعی، تعدد متولیان اندازه‌گیری و گزار‌ش‌دهی هزینه‌کرد تحقیق‏وتوسعه، مشارکت نکردن مجریان تحقیق‏ و توسعه در پیمایش‌ها و ضعف نظام آماری تحقیق ‏و توسعه. با توجه به پشتوانه‌های قانونی موجود و دریافت نظرات خبرگان به روش پانل، مهم‌ترین راهکارهای سیاستی برای رفع چالش‏های فوق عبارت‌اند از تدوین و تصویب راهنمای ملی تعریف تحقیق ‏و توسعه، بازنگری در ساختار لایحه بودجه و افزایش شفافیت ردیف‌های برنامه‌ای تحقیق ‏و توسعه، تعیین نهاد متولی پیمایش و اندازه‌گیری هزینه‌کرد تحقیق ‏و توسعه و استقرار و اداره سیستم اطلاعات مدیریت علم، فناوری و نوآوری.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Requirements, Challenges, and Policy Recommendations for Measuring R&D Expenditure in Iran

نویسندگان [English]

  • Parisa Alizadeh 1
  • Seyed Soroush Ghazinoori 2
1 Assistant Professor, STI Financing and Economics Department, National Research Institute for Science Policy (NRISP), Tehran, Iran
2 Associate Professor, Industrial Management Department, Faculty of Management and Accounting, Allameh Tabataba'i University, Tehran, Iran
چکیده [English]

This study aims to identify the requirements and challenges of measuring R&D expenditure in Iran and proposing policy recommendations to address those challenges. For this purpose, first, desk research was conducted to identify the requirements and assess the current situation of measuring and reporting of R&D expenditure in Iran. Then, with the help of the survey, using semi-constructed interviews with experts of the most important relevant agencies, the challenges of measuring R&D expenditure were identified. The sampling method in this study is non-random target sampling. Analysis of the findings shows that the most important challenges are: lack of a national for R&D definition, lack of transparency in defining R&D budget in the government sector, lack of R&D survey for small businesses and non-profit organizations, the multiplicity of measuring and reporting agencies, lack of the participation of R&D performers in surveys, and the weakness of the statistical system of R&D. Given the existing legal backing and receiving expert opinions through the panel, policy solutions to address the above challenges have also been proposed; those are, approving a national guide for defining R&D, increasing the transparency of R&D activities in annual budget act, appointing the body in charge of surveying and measuring R&D expenditure, and establishing and managing an STI information system.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Research and Development (R&D)
  • Expenditure
  • Survey
  • Iran
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