بررسی تطبیقی فرآیند مشارکت مردمی در برنامه‌ریزی شهری به منظور معرفی چالش‌ها و موانع برنامه‌ریزی نوین در ایران

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی کارشناسی ارشد برنامه ریزی شهری، مؤسسه آموزش عالی آپادانا، شیراز، ایران

2 استادیار، مهندسی معماری، گروه معماری، دانشکده معماری و هنر، دانشگاه گیلان، رشت، ایران

3 استادیار، جغرافیا و برنام هریزی روستایی، گروه جغرافیا، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، واحد مرودشت، مرودشت، ایران

چکیده

تجربه و مطالعات صورت گرفته در سطح جهان نشان می‌دهد جهت کسب موفقیت در فرآیند مدیریت و توسعه‌ی شهرهای امروزی با دارا بودن مشکلات و آسیب‌های گوناگون در ابعاد کالبدی، اجتماعی، فرهنگی و اقتصادی، لازم است شهروندان مشارکتی واقعی و پایدار در امور شهری داشته باشند. هدف این نوشتار ارائه‌ی چهارچوبی ادراکی بر فرآیند مشارکت مردمی در برنامه‌ریزی‌های شهری با رویکردی تطبیقی بر کشور‌های مختلف جهت معرفی مفهوم مشارکت واقعی در راستای دستیابی به توسعه‌ی پایدار شهری، می‌باشد. بدین منظور پس از ارائه‌ی مفاهیم و مدل‌های مشارکتی و مروری بر نمونه‌های موردی مشارکت در سطح جهان به بررسی معضلات و موانع برنامه‌های مشارکتی در ایران پرداخته می‌شود.
روش تحقیق به لحاظ هدف از نوع کاربردی و توسعه‌ای و جمع‌آوری اطلاعات به‌صورت کتابخانه‌ای می‌باشد که با روش توصیفی و تطبیقی-تحلیلی به بررسی وضع موجود پرداخته شد.
نتایج گویای آن است که برخی از کشور‌های توسعه‌یافته‌ی جهان توانسته‌اند با اتخاذ سیاست‌ها و راهبرد‌هایی نظیر آموزش، شفاف‌سازی، اعتماد به شهروندان و... به موفقیت در اجرای طرح‌های مشارکت واقعی و در پی آن توسعه‌ی پایدار شهری دست یابند. اما این امر در ایران با مشکلات گوناگونی نظیر؛ عدم اعتماد دوسویه‌ی شهروندان و مدیران شهری به یکدیگر، عدم انطباق اولویت‌های شهروندان با برنامه‌های ارائه‌شده، ناهماهنگی نهادهای اجرایی با یکدیگر، مشکلات اقتصادی، نبود آموزش مؤثر و... مواجه می‌باشد که موجب شکست پی‌درپی طرح‌ها و برنامه‌های اجرایی و همچنین باقی ماندن مدیریتی معطوف و متکی به مرکز شده است.

کلیدواژه‌ها

dor 20.1001.1.10272690.1399.30.80.6.5

عنوان مقاله [English]

A Comparative Analysis of the Process of People’s Participation in Urban Planning to Present Challenges and Obstacles of Modern Planning in Iran

نویسندگان [English]

  • seyedeh Aida Hosseini 1
  • Ardalan Aflaki 2
  • ali Shamsoddini 3
1 MS Student, Urban Planning, Apadana Institute of Higher Education, Shiraz, Iran
2 Assistant Professor, Architectural Engineering, Department of Architecture, Faculty of Architecture and Art, University of Guilan, Rasht, Iran
3 Assistant Professor, Geography and Rural Planning, Department of Geography, Islamic Azad University, Marvdasht Branch, Marvdasht, Iran
چکیده [English]

Experience and studies conducted around the world show that in order to succeed in the process of management and development of today's cities with various problems and defects in physical, social, cultural and economic dimensions, it is necessary for citizens to have real and sustainable participation in urban affairs. The purpose of this paper is to provide a perceptual framework on the process of public participation in urban planning with a comparative approach to different countries to introduce the concept of real participation in order to achieve sustainable urban development. For this purpose, after presenting the concepts and models of participation and reviewing the case examples of participation in the world, the problems and obstacles of participation programs in Iran will be examined.
The adopted research methodology is the review of the collection of information from selected books and other sources, being explored through descriptive and comparative-analytical methods.
The results show that some developed countries in the world have been able to succeed in implementing real partnership projects and sustainable urban development by adopting policies and strategies such as education, transparency, trust in citizens, etc. But in contrast, in Iran this is with various problems such as; Mutual distrust between citizens and city managers, incompatibility of citizens' priorities with the proposed programs, inconsistency of executive institutions with each other, economic problems, lack of effective education, etc., which leads to the failure of executive plans and programs and also keeps them depended and relying on the center.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Public participation
  • Adaptive approach
  • Barriers to participatory planning
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