دانشگاه‌ها چگونه می‌توانند با جامعه در تعامل باشند؟ در جست‌وجوی رویکرد جدید دانشگاه‌ها به مأموریت سوم در ایران

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری رشته ی آموزش کشاورزی، دانشکده اقتصاد و توسعه، ‌پردیس کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی، دانشگاه تهران

2 استاد گروه ترویج و آموزش کشاورزی، دانشکده اقتصاد و توسعه، ‌پردیس کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی، دانشگاه تهران

3 استاد گروه مدیریت و توسعه کشاورزی، دانشکده اقتصاد و توسعه،‌ پردیس کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی، دانشگاه تهران

4 استادیار گروه ترویح و آموزش کشاورزی، دانشکده اقتصاد و توسعه، پردیس کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی،‌ دانشگاه تهران

چکیده

توافق گسترده‌ای نسبت به نقش دانشگاه در جامعه در پاسخ به چالش‌های اقتصادی و اجتماعی،‌ پرورش شهروندان روشنفکر و مولد و درگیر در مشارکت از طریق ماموریت سوم وجود دارد؛ اما هیچ تعریف منحصربه‌فردی از مفهوم تعامل دانشگاهی وجود ندارد و ماموریت سوم دانشگاه فاقد یک تصویر مشخص است. این مقاله با دیدگاهی انتقادی و با روش مروری- تحلیلی، پنج رویکرد تعامل دانشگاه با جامعه شامل کارخانه دانش، تعامل با صنعت،‌ کارآفرینی فناورانه، کارآفرینی اجتماعی، رویکرد پایدار و تعامل سیستمیک را بررسی نموده و این رویکردها بر اساس نه عامل اعم از فلسفه، اهداف، جهت گیری، ذینفعان، عوامل تاثیرگذار، دلالت سیاسی، رویکرد به نوآوری، چارچوب زمانی و کانال های ارتباطی مورد مقایسه قرار گرفته اند. هدف از این فرایند شفاف ساختن تفاوت رویکردهای تعامل دانشگاه با جامعه؛ ارائه تصویری از تعامل دانشگاهی و مبرهن ساختن شناخت و تبیین رویکرد مناسب به مأموریت سوم در دانشگاه‌ها با توجه به شرایط محیطی در ایران بود. نتایج نشان داد که مأموریت سوم دانشگاه یک مأموریت در حال تحول است که با تعریف معمول آن و تمرکز اقتصادی و شیوه‌های انتقال فناوری تفاوت دارد. انتخاب رویکرد تعامل در هر دانشگاه یک موضوع پیچیده است که رهایی از این پیچیدگی و به دست آوردن تصویری واضح از تعامل دانشگاه با جامعه منوط به شفاف ساختن پنج موضوع ابهام ‌برانگیز اعم از قصد یا هدف از تعامل، درک یا تصور تعامل،‌ تاریخ توسعه دانشگاه، ‌ساختار دانشگاه و معنای تعامل از دیدگاه ذینفعان تعامل است

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

How Can Universities Engage with Society? Searching for a New Approach to Universities' Third Mission in Iran

نویسندگان [English]

  • hoda izadi 1
  • mahamood hossieni 2
  • ali asadi 3
  • Amir Alambaigi 4
1 PhD Student of Agricultural Education, Department of Economics and Development, College of Agriculture and Natural Resources, University of Tehran
2 Professor of Agricultural Extension and Education, Department of Economics and Development, College of Agriculture and Natural Resources, University of Tehran
3 Professor of Agricultural Management and Development, Department of Economics and Development, College of Agriculture and Natural Resources, University of Tehran
4 Assistant Professor of Agricultural Extension and Education, College of Agriculture and Natural Resources, University of Tehran
چکیده [English]

There is a widespread consensus regarding the role and function of the universities in society concerning the ways of their response to economic and social challenges and fostering intellectual, productive and engaged citizens in participation through the third mission; however, it seems that there is not a single agreed upon definition and clear picture of the concept of academic engagement and the third mission of the university. Using an analytical review method, this article with a critical perspective, examines five approaches of university engagement with society, namely: knowledge factory, interaction with industry, technological entrepreneurship, social entrepreneurship, sustainability approach and systemic interaction. These approaches were compared based on nine factors, including: philosophy, goals, orientation, beneficiaries, influencing factors, political Context, innovation approach, time framework and communication channels. The purpose of this process was: to clarify the differences existing among the five approaches to the university engagement with society; to provide a broad perspective of university engagement and understand the nature and characteristic features of the appropriate approaches to the third mission in universities based on the Iranian environmental/contextual situation. The results indicated that the third mission of the university is an evolving mission that differs from its conventional definition and economic focus and technology transfer methods. Choosing the appropriate approach of interaction in a given university is a complex issue, which requires solving this complexity and obtaining a clear picture of the university's interaction with society that depends on clarifying five complicated issues of: the intention or purpose of the interaction, understanding or imagining the interaction, historical development of the university ,the organizational structure of the university and the meaning of interaction from the perspective of stakeholders

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Third Mission
  • Community
  • Engagement Approach
  • University
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