افق پیش‏روی سیاست‏گذاری و مدیریت پسماند

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی کارشناسی محیط‏زیست دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد

2 دانشکده منابع طبیعی و محیط زیست، دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد

چکیده

با توجه به افزایش تولید پسماند و دل‏نگرانی‏های حاصل از خسارات اکولوژیکی ناشی از آن­ها، سیاست‏گذاری مدیریت پسماند از اهمیت فوق‏العاده‏ای برخوردار شده است. پسماند محصول جانبی فعالیت‏های انسانی و شامل انواع پسماندهای خانگی، پزشکی، کشاورزی، صنعتی، تجاری، ویژه و خطرناک است. در مدیریت جامع پسماند، جمع‏آوری و روش‏های پردازش و دفع پسماند در تعامل با یکدیگر به نحوی مدیریت می‏گردند که اهداف سه‏گانه محیط‏زیستی، اجتماعی و اقتصادی مطلوب منطقه به دست آید. این مقاله با بررسی چندین رویکرد‏ مدیریت پسماند، بر سیاست‏های مدیریت پسماند و استراتژی‏هایی همچون قیمت‏گذاری نرخ متغیر خدمات‏دهی پسماند، آموزش و انگیزه‏های اقتصادی تأکید می‏کند. در ادامه، کاستی‏های سیاست‏گذاری و نیز چالش‏های قانون مدیریت پسماند بررسی می‏شود و مدیریت پسماند در نظام حقوقی چند کشور مورد واکاوی قرار می‏گیرد. با توجه به اسناد بالادستی محیط‏زیستی همچون اصل پنجاهم قانون اساسی و برنامه‏های توسعه پنج‌ساله کشور، بیان می‏گردد که قانون مدیریت پسماند در ایران در مسیر رشد خود بوده و تکامل آن در گرو بررسی بیشتر حقوقدانان، متخصصان و حمایت تمام نهادهاست. درنتیجه، ضروری است تا در کنار سیستم قانونی و سیاست‏گذاری، سیستم‏های مدیریتی، اقتصادی، محیط‏زیستی، فرهنگی و اجتماعی پسماند نیز تقویت گردند.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Future Horizons of Waste Policy Formulation and Management

نویسندگان [English]

  • Zeinab Khodaverdi Azghandi 1
  • Mahdi KOLAHI 2
1 BSc Student, Faculty of Natural Resources and Environment, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad
2 ​Faculty of Natural Resources and Environment Ferdowsi University of Mashhad Mashhad, Iran, PO BOX 9177948974
چکیده [English]

Due to the increasing waste production and the concerns arising from their environmental damage, waste management policy-making is of the utmost importance. The waste is a side product of human activities and includes a variety of household, medical, agricultural, industrial, commercial, special, and hazardous waste. In Comprehensive Waste Management, collection, transport, process, treatment, and disposal of waste are managed to achieve the desired triple environmental, social, and economic objectives of the region. By examining several waste management approaches, this paper emphasizes on waste management policies and strategies such as different service pricing, training, and economic incentives. Besides, the study investigates the policy deficiencies and challenges of waste management law and analyzes legal systems of waste management in some countries. Considering the upstream environmental documents such as the Fifth Article of the constitution and the Five-Year Development Plans of the country, it is stated that the law of waste management in Iran is in the course of its development, and its evolution depends on the further examination of lawyers, and specialists and support of all institutions. As a result, in addition to legal and policy tools, it is necessary to strengthen management, economic, environmental, cultural, and social systems of waste.

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