ارائه مدل پیش‌بینی تشخیص فرصت‌های کارآفرینی با توجه به نقش سواد فناوری اطلاعات و ارتباطات

نویسندگان

1 استادیار، گروه علم اطلاعات و دانش شناسی، دانشگاه پیام نور، ایران.

2 دانشیار، گروه برنامه‌ریزی آموزشی، دانشگاه پیام نور

3 کارشناسی ارشد، گروه برنامه‌ریزی آموزشی، دانشگاه پیام نور

چکیده

نقش کارآفرین در فرایند تغییر فناوری سبب‌شده کارآفرینی به کانون پژوهش تبدیل شود، و شناسایی فرصت به ‌عنوان نقطه تمرکز کارآفرینی مورد توجه پژوهشگران قرار گیرد. پژوهش حاضر با هدف ارائه مدل پیش‌بینی تشخیص فرصت‌های کارآفرینی با توجه به نقش سواد فناوری اطلاعات و ارتباطات در میان دانشجویان علوم پزشکی دانشگاه شیراز به روش تحلیل مسیر انجام شده است. در این پژوهش ابعاد هوشیاری کارآفرینانه نقش متغیر واسطه‌ را دارند. به همین منظور 373 نفر از دانشجویان به کمک جدول مورگان به عنوان نمونه انتخاب و به پرسشنامه‌ای خود گزارشی متشکل از خرده مقیاس‌های سواد فناوری اطلاعات و ارتباطات‏، تشخیص فرصت‌های کارآفرینانه [17] و هوشیاری کارآفرینانه [24] پاسخ داده‌اند. در ضمن قابلیت اعتماد مقیاس‌ها بر اساس ضریب آلفای کرونباخ بررسی و تأیید شده است. روش اجرای این پژوهش توصیفی و از نوع همبستگی است.‌ نتایج نشان می‌دهد که سواد فناوری اطلاعات به صورت مستقیم بر تشخیص فرصت‌های مطالعاتی تأثیر ندارد. بلکه به واسطه ابعاد هوشیاری کارآفرینانه (پویش و جست‌وجو، و همکاری و ارتباط) بر تشخیص فرصت‌های کارآفرینانه تأثیر غیرمستقیم دارد. از میان ابعاد هوشیاری کارآفرینانه، بعد پویش و جست‌وجو بیشترین تأثیر را بر تشخیص فرصت‌های کارآفرینانه دارد. کارآفرینان با شناسایی و هدف‌گیری فرصت‌های پیش رو، اقدام به بهره‌برداری آنها، فرایند تولید بازار و تحقق نیازهای اجتماعی و اقتصادی را رونق می‌دهند. کارآفرینانی که قابلیت هوشیاری کارآفرینانه بالایی دارند، می‌توانند اطلاعات روزآمدی کسب کنند و با پردازش‌ اطلاعات کسب‌شده، شانس بیشتری برای تشخیص فرصت‌های کارآفرینانه ایجاد کنند.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Developing a Predictive Model for Identifying Entrepreneurial Opportunities Given the Role of ICT Literacy

نویسندگان [English]

  • Ali Biranvand 1
  • Ahmad Rastegar 2
  • Zahra Ahanvarz 3
1 Assistant Professor, Department of Knowledge and Information Science, Payame Noor University, Iran.
2 Associate Professor, Department of Educational Sciences, Payame Noor University, Iran
3 M.A. Department of Educational Sciences, PayamNoor University, Iran
چکیده [English]

The role of the entrepreneur in the process of technology change has made entrepreneurship a focus of research and identifying opportunities as the focus of entrepreneurship has been the focus of researchers. The purpose of this study was to present a predictive model for identifying entrepreneurial opportunities considering the role of information and communication technology literacy among medical students of Shiraz University by path analysis method. In this study, entrepreneurial consciousness dimensions have a mediating variable role. For this purpose, 373 students were selected using the Morgan Table as a sample and completed a self-report questionnaire consisting of ICT literacy subscales (Zare Moghaddam, Hesami, Rostami, and Ghorbani, 2017) identifying opportunities. Entrepreneurial (Pahhaka, 2010) and Entrepreneurial Consciousness (Tang & Murphy, 2012) have responded. Besides, the reliability of the scales has been evaluated and confirmed by Cronbach's alpha coefficient. The method of this research is descriptive and correlational. The results show that information technology literacy does not directly affect the recognition of study opportunities. Rather, it has an indirect impact on the recognition of entrepreneurial opportunities through the dimensions of entrepreneurial awareness (scanning and searching as well as collaboration and communication). Among the dimensions of entrepreneurial vigilance, the dimension of searching and searching has the most impact on identifying entrepreneurial opportunities.By identifying and targeting opportunities and taking advantage of them, entrepreneurs enhance the process of market production and the fulfillment of social and economic needs. Entrepreneurs with high entrepreneurial awareness can obtain up-to-date information, and by processing the information gained they, have a greater chance of identifying entrepreneurial opportunities

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Entrepreneurial
  • Entrepreneurial Opportunity Recognition
  • ICT Literacy
  • Entrepreneurial Alertness
[1]     ‏‫‎Acs, Zoltán J.; Szerb, Laszlo; Lafuente, Esteban; & Lloyd, Ainsley. (2018). Global Entrepreneurship and Development Index 2018. Cham: Springer International Publishing. Retrieved from http://link.springer.com/10.1007/978-3-030-03279-1

[2]    Ardichvili, Alexander; Cardozo, Richard; & Ray, Sourav. (2003). A theory of entrepreneurial opportunity identification and development. Journal of Business venturing, 18 (1), 105-123. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1016/S0883-9026(01)000 68-4

[3]    Bhagavatula, Suresh; Elfring, Tom; Van Tilburg, Aad; & Van De Bunt, Gerhard G. (2010). How social and human capital influence opportunity recognition and resource mobilization in India’s handloom industry. Journal of Business Venturing, 25 (3), 245-260.      https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbusvent.2008.10.006

[4]    Biranvand, Ali; Seif, Mohammad Hassan; Safa, Soheila; & Mazloumian, Saeid. (2019). An Investigation into the Effective Factors on the Intention to Commercialization of Knowledge in a University: A Case Study. Library Philosophy and Practice (e-journal). Retrieved from             https://digitalcommons.unl.edu/libphilprac/ 2216

[5]    Corbett, Andrew C. (2007). Learning asymmetries and the discovery of entrepreneurial opportunities. Journal of Business Venturing, 22 (1), 97-118. Retrieved from        
https://ideas.repec.org/a/eee/jbvent/v22y2007i1p97-118.html

[6]    Dhanavandan, S.; Esmail, Mohammed; & Nagarajan, M. (2011). Information Communication Technology (ICT) Infrastructure Facilities in Self-Financing Engineering College Libraries in Tamil Nadu. Library Philosophy and Practice, (1), 69. Retrieved from https://dialnet.unirioja.es/servlet/articulo?codigo=3711574

[7]    Galloway, Laura; & Brown, Wendy. (2002). Entrepreneurship education at university: a driver in the creation of high growth firms? Education + Training. https://doi.org/10.1108/00400910210449231

[8]    Hajizadeh, Ali; Zali, Mohammadreza; & Beigpour, Effat. (2014). Examining the relationship between Prior knowledge and Entrepreneurial opportunity recognition with mediating role of Entrepreneurial alertness and Entrepreneurial learning. Journal of Entrepreneurship Development, 7 (4), pp. 613-633.               
https://doi.org/10.22059/ jed.2014.5362 1.

[9]    Hildreth, Paul M.; & Kimble, Chris. (2004). Knowledge Networks: Innovation Through Communities of Practice. Idea Group Inc (IGI).

[10]    Hung, Richard Yu-Yuan. (2006). Business process management as competitive advantage: a review and empirical study. Total Quality Management & Business Excellence, 17 (1), 21-40.             
https://doi.org/10.1080/14783360500249836

[11]    [11] Karam, Albert. (2017, September). CEO Entrepreneurial Characteristics and the Entrepreneurial Orientation of the Firm. Concordia University. Retrieved from 
https://spectrum.library.concordia.ca/983010/#

[12]    Kirzner, Israel M. (1973). Competition and Entrepreneurship. Rochester, NY: Social Science Research Network. Retrieved from https://papers.ssrn.com/ abstract=1496174

[13]    Kirzner, Israel M. (2009). The alert and creative entrepreneur: a clarification. Small Business Economics, 32 (2), 145-152. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11187-008-9153-7

[14]    Kirzner, Israel M. (2019). The Alert and Creative Entrepreneur: A Clarification. Rochester, NY: Social Science Research Network. Retrieved from https://papers.ssrn.com/abstract=1224842

[15]    Lim, Wei Lee; & Roland Xavier, Siri. (2015). Opportunity recognition framework: Exploring the technology entrepreneurs. American Journal of economics, 5 (2), 105-111.    
https://doi.org/10.5923/c.economics.201501.10

[16]    Luksha, Pavel. (2008). Niche construction: The process of opportunity creation in the environment. Strategic Entrepreneurship Journal, 4 (2), 269-283. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1002/sej.57

[17]    Puhakka, Vesa. (2010). Versatile and flexible use of intellectual capital in entrepreneurial opportunity discovery. ournal of Management Research, 2 (1), 1. Retrieved from            
https://scholar.google.com/scholar?cluster=503520338039662809&hl=en&as_sdt=0,5

[18]    Rasmusen, Eric Bennett. (2006). Strategic implications of uncertainty over one’s own private value in auctions. Advances in Theoretical Economics, 6 (1), 1-22. Retrieved from        
https://www.degruyter.com/view/j/bejte.2006.6.1/bejte.2006.6.1.1261/bejte.2006.6.1.1261.xml

[19]    Saemundsson, Rognvaldur J.; & Holmen, Magnus. (2007). Changes in entrepreneurial opportunities: New capital goods and changes in knowledge-barriers to entry. Magnus Holmén, RIDE, Chalmers University of Technology, 1-27.

[20]    Schumpeter, JosephA. (1934). The Theory of Economic Development. New York, NY, USA.

[21]    Shane, Scott Andrew. (2003). A General Theory of Entrepreneurship: The Individual-opportunity Nexus. Edward Elgar Publishing.

[22]    Sine, Wesley D.; & Lee, Brandon H. (2009). Tilting at Windmills? The Environmental Movement and the Emergence of the U.S. Wind Energy Sector. Administrative Science Quarterly, 54(1), 123-155. https://doi.org/10.2189/ asqu.2009.54.1.123

[23]    Tang, Jintong. (2007). Entrepreneurial Alertness: A Review, Reconceptualization and Extension. A Three-essay Approach. ProQuest. Retrieved from       
https://scholar.google.com/scholar?hl=en&as_sdt=0,5&q=Tang, J. (2007), “Entrepreneurial Alertness: A Review, Re-conceptualization, and Extension” (PhD dissertation, University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa).&btnG=

[24]    Tang, Jintong; & Murphy, Patrick J. (2012). Prior knowledge and new product and service introductions by entrepreneurial firms: The mediating role of technological innovation. Journal of Small Business Management, 50(1), 41-62. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-627X.2011.00343.x

[25]    Ugwu, Felicia. (2012). Evaluation of Entrepreneurship Awareness and Skills among LIS Students in Universities in South East Nigeria. Library Philosophy and Practice (e-journal). Retrieved from https://digitalcommons.unl.edu/ libphilprac/836

[26]    Valliere, Dave. (2013). Towards a schematic theory of entrepreneurial alertness. Journal of Business Venturing, 28 (3), 430-442. Retrieved from       
https://ideas.repec.org/a/eee/jbvent/v28y2013i3p430-442.html

[27]    Wang, Yu-Lin; Ellinger, Andrea D.; & Wu, Yen-Chun Jim. (2013). Entrepreneurial opportunity recognition: an empirical study of R&D personnel. Management Decision.        
https://doi.org/10.1108/00251741311301803

ZHU, Ren-hong; TANG, Jin-tong; & Murphy, Patrick J. (2009). Entrepreneurial Alertness, Technical Innovation and New Product Development. Contemporary Finance & Economics, 3, 15. Retrieved from http://en.cnki.com.cn/Article_en/ CJFDTotal-DDCJ200903015.htm