بررسی مفهوم معنویت در کارآفرینی بر اساس رویکرد داده بنیاد

نوع مقاله : ترویجی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکترای جامعه‌شناسی اقتصادی و توسعه واحد اراک دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی،اراک،ایران

2 استادیارگروه جامعه‌شناسی،دانشکده علوم انسانی، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی،اراک،ایران

3 استادیارگروه جامعه شناسی،دانشکده علوم انسانی، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی،اراک،ایران

10.22034/rahyaft.2022.10944.1283

چکیده

کارآفرینی نقش مهمی در رشد وتوسعه اقتصاد کشورها ایفامی‌کند و کارآفرینان با انگیزه‌های معنوی در حال افزایش‌اند. این پژوهش از لحاظ روش کیفی است؛ و بررسی پدیده معنویت بر موقعیت کارآفرینی از منظر شرایط علی، زمینه‌ای، راهبردی، و پیامدها هدف این پژوهش است. روش نظری داده‌بنیاد برای شناسایی فرایندهایی مناسب است که ابهام فوق‌العاده و پیچیدگی در فضای ذهنی-عینی فکر و کردار مردم وجود دارد. یافته‌ها حاکی از آن هستند جهان‌زیست‌های مختلف، نوع‌دوستی، جهان‌زیست‌های مختلف، تکثرگرایی، نسبیت‌گرایی، فردیت‌گرایی، التقاط‌گرایی، ارتباطات، معنای زندگی به عنوان عوامل علّی شناسایی شدند که در فرایند معنویت بر کارآفرینی تأثیردارند. افزایش جمعیت، پیری جمعیت، جهانی‌شدن، سن، زمان، مکان، منابع تغذیه فکری، تحصیلات، جنس، شرایط سیاسی، اجتماعی و اقتصادی به عنوان عوامل میانجی شناسایی شدند. رشد شخصی، رضایت فردی، از خود فراتر رفتن، شناخت خود و خدا، تحلیل هزینه، پاداش، شناخت دیگران، کمک به دیگران به عنوان راهبردها و استقلال، نوآوری، همدلی، مسئولیت اجتماعی، خودنوشت، سرمایه اجتماعی به عنوان پیامدها استخراج شدند.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Investigating the Concept of Spirituality in Entrepreneurship Grounded Theory Approach

نویسندگان [English]

  • abbas hldkd 1
  • Farhad Imam Juma 2
  • jela mashhadi 3
1 Department of Sociology, Islamic Azad University of Arak, Iran
2 Department of Sociology, Islamic Azad University of Arak, Iran
3 Faculty member, Department of Sociology, Islamic Azad University of Arak
چکیده [English]

Abstract
A country that wants to develop must have an entrepreneur. People with knowledge in a field of specialization, high risk-taking power and creative and innovative, all of which depend on the intrinsic values ​​of entrepreneurs. Factors that are considered important in the development sector. Spiritual life does not necessarily mean belonging to one of the institutional and historical religions, but it does mean having an attitude towards the world and man that gives man peace, happiness and hope. The research method is qualitative and has been done with the aim of the role of spirituality in entrepreneurship. In this research, the theoretical method of data foundation has been used. For this research, 10 interviews were conducted, but after 9 interviews, data analysis did not lead to the discovery of new concepts and categories. However, to ensure theoretical saturation, 5 more interviews were conducted and their data were analyzed. The data collection tool is a semi-structured interview based on the findings of this study of different environments (different biospheres) Pluralism-Normative relativism-Individualism-Eclecticism were identified as causal factors that affect the process of spirituality on entrepreneurship. Familiarity with schools of thought and sports such as yoga - experiences of poverty in the family, the occurrence of the imposed war, the Islamic Revolution, the spread of Islamic ideology in the decades after the revolution, religious upheavals were identified as mediating factors. Personal growth, personal satisfaction, self-transcendence, self-knowledge and self-knowledge, cost-reward analysis, knowing others, helping others as strategies and independence, innovation, empathy, social responsibility, self-writing, altruism as consequences Were.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Spirituality
  • Entrepreneurship
  • Data Foundation Theory
  • Development
  • Secularism
Beetham D. Max Weber and the Theory of Modern Politics. London: Publisher PolityPress; 2018.
Rao, S. S. and Singh, S. Max Weber’s Contribution to the Sociology of Education: A Critical Appreciation, Contemporary Education Dialogue. SAGE Publications Ltd. 2018; 15 (1): 73–92.
Naude W. Entrepreneurship and Economic Development: Theory, Evidence and PolicyUNU-MERIT and MGSoG, University of Maastricht and IZA DP. 2013; 7505.
Schumpeter J.The theory of economic development.Cambridge. MA: Harvard University Press. 1911; (Revised editions in 1961).
Hunt Diana. Economic Theories of Development. 1989. Gholamreza Azad Armaki (persian) Trans. Third Edition. Tehran: Nee Publishing; 2014.
Imam Juma Farhad. [Cultural Sociology (persian)] fifth edition, Tehran. Published by Bahman Borna; 2016.
Hal Sirkin, James W. Hemerling, Arindam Bhattacharya. [Globality: Competing with Everyone from Everywhere for Everything]. NewYork.Grand Central Publishing. 2008.
Cole H. The Entrepreneur: Introductory Remarks, American Review of Economics. 1968; LVIII-2: 64-71.
Mitroff I. & Denton E. A. [A study of spirituality in the workplace]. Sloan Management. 1999; 40: 83-92.
Bullis R. K. [Spirituality in social work practice] .Washington DC: Taylor & Francis. 1996.
Barker R L. [The social work dictionary]. 3rded. Washington DC: NASW Press. 1995.
Sheridan M. J & Amato-von Hemer K. The role of religion and spirituality in social work education and practice: A survey of student views and experiences. Journal of Social Work Education.1999; 35 (1): 125-141.
Delbecq A L. Christian spirituality and contemporary business leadership. Journal of Organizational Change Management.1999; 12 (4): 345.
Al-Ghazali M. [Khuluq al-Muslim] .11th ed. Beirut: Dar al-Qalm li Tiba‘ah wa al- Nashr wal-Tawzi; 1994.
Penman J.Motivations driving spiritual engagement based on a phenomenological study of spirituality amongst palliative care clients and caregivers. Journal of Nursing Education and Practice. 2012; 2 (3): 135-147.
Kinjerski V. M. and Skrypnek, B. J. Defining spirit at work: finding common ground. Journal of organizational change management.2004; 17 (1): 26-42.
Morris M and Schindehutte M. Entrepreneurial values and the ethnic enterprise: an
examination of six subcultures. Journal of small business management. 2005; 43 (4): 453–479.
Candland C. Faith as social capital: religion and community development in SouthernAsia. Policy sciences. 2000; 33 (3): 355-374.
Dana LP. [Entrepreneurship and religion]. Cheltenham. UK Publishing.: Edward Elgar; 2010
Fernando M and Jackson B. The influence of religion-based workplace spirituality on businessleaders decision making: an inter-faith study. Journal of management and organization. 2006; 12 (1): 23-39.
Schjoedt L and Shaver K. G. Deciding on an entrepreneurial career: a test of the pull and push hypotheses using the panel study of entrepreneurial dynamics data. Entrepreneurship theory and practice. 2007; 31 (5): 733-752.
Brockhaus RH. Risk taking propensity of entrepreneurs. Academy of management Journal.1980; 23 (3): 509-520.
Gaglio C. M. and Katz J. A. The psychological basis of opportunity identification: entrepreneurial alertness. Small business economics.2001; 16 (2): 95-111.
Katz JA. A psychological cognitive model of employment status choice. Entrepreneurship theory and practiceFirst Published. (1992 October1). Available at: www.doi.org/10.1177/104225879201700104.
Lumpkin GT and Dess G.G. Clarifying the entrepreneurial orientation construct andlinking it to performance. Academy of management review. 1996; 21 (1): 135–172.
Ghorbani N. Muslim attitudes towards religion scale: factors, validity and complexity ofrelationships with mental health in Iran. (persian) Mental health, religion & culture. 2000; 3 (2): 125–132.
King-Kauanui SK. Exploring entrepreneurship through the lens of spirituality. Journal of management, spirituality & religion. 2008; 5 (2): 160–189
Kayed RN and Hassan M.K. Islamic entrepreneurship: a case study of Saudi Arabia. Journal ofdevelopmental entrepreneurship. 2010; 15 (4): 379-413.
Scheier, M. F., Carver, C. S., & Bridges, M. W. (1994). Distinguishing optimism from neuroticism (and trait anxiety, self-mastery, and self-esteem): a reevaluation of the Life Orientation Test. Journal of personality and social psychology, 67 (6), 1063-78.
Elkins, D. N. Beyond religion: A personal program for building a spiritual life outside the walls of traditional religion. Wheaton, IL: The Theosophical Publishing house. 1998.
Hall, T. W., & Edwards, K. J. The Spiritual Assessment Inventory: A theistic model and measure for assessing spiritual development. Journal for the scientific study of religion, 2002; 41 (2), 341-357.
Ezkia Mostafa, Ghaffari Ghala Marza [Sociology of Development (Persian)]. Fourth Edition. Tehran. Publications Kayhan; 2009.
Ruef M and Lounsbury M. The Sociology of Entrepreneurship. Research in the Sociology of Organizations. 2007; (8): 25.
Birx H and Fogelson B.Modal Personality’ in Encyclopedia of Anthropology. SAGE Publications.2012; Inc. doi: 10.4135/9781412952453.n606.
Pawar P.Social Sciences Perspectives on Entrepreneurship Developing Country Studies. 2013; 3 (9): 25
Hagen E E .How economic growth begins: A theory of social change. Journal of Social Issues. 1963; 19 (1) (Accessed: 17 Nov 2009) Availableat: https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1505877.
Burger Peter Berger, Bridget and Kellner Hansfried. The Homeless Mind, Modernization and Awareness. [1998). [Translated by Mohammad Savoji]. second: Tehran: nia; 2002.
Hervoljeh D. Transfer and formation of religious social identities in modernity. (Persian) translated by Mahmoud Nejati-Hosseini. Research Quarterly.2001; 5: 20-21.
Jackson M. AN ANALYSIS OF MAX WEBER’S THEORY OF ETHNICITY. Humboldt Journal of Social Relations. Department of Sociology. Humboldt State University. 1983: 4-18.
Beetham D. [Max Weber and the Theory of Modern Politics]. London: Publisher Polity Press; 2018.
Lehmann D. [Development theory: four critical studies]. 1st Edition. London: Routedge; 2010.
Nee V and Young F. W.Peasant entrepreneurs in China’s second economy: an institutional analysis Economic Development & Cultural Change. University of Chicago Press. 1991; 39 (2): 293-310.
Baskerville R. F. Hofstede Never Studied Culture Accounting Organizations and Society. 2003; 28 (1): 1-14.
Shane S.A .The Effect of National Culture on the Choice between Licensing and Direct Foreign Investment. StrategicManagement Journal. 1994; 15: 627-642.
North D.C. [Institutions Institutional Change andEconomic Performance]. NewYork: Norton; 1990.
Gharamaleki Mohammad Hassan [Secularism in Christianity and Islam ](Persian)] First Edition. Qom: Tabligat Islamic Office Publishing Center; 2000.
Dabbler Karl. Toward an Integrated Perspective of the processes Related to the Descriptive Concept of secularization sociology of religion. 1999; (15): 229-248.
Balog A, Baker M. LaKami T. Religiosity and spirituality in entrepreneurship: A review and research agenda Journal of Managemen. 2014; 11 (2): 159-186.
Nafisa Ijie. The relative importance of spirituality in entrepreneurship development among graduates of Nigerian tertiary institutions, International Journal of Business. 2013; 2 (4): 22-48.
Woodhead L. Real Religion Fuzzy Spirituality? Taking Sides in the Sociology of Religion. In Aupers S Houtman D editors Religions of Modernity: Relocating the Sacred to the Self and the Digital. Leiden: Brill. 2010; 31-48.
Nowruzi Azam, Gholamreza Montazeri, Ali Pourmandi, Seyed Mehdi Hosseini Ozineh. Investigating the Relationship between Spiritual Leadership with Job Enthusiasm and Organizational Entrepreneurship of Golestan. (Persian) Islamic Azad University Staff Accounting and Economics Management. 2017; (1) 3: 78-90.
Glaser, B. and Strauss, A. [The Discovery of the Grounded Theory: Strategies for Qualitative Research]. NewYork. Aldine Publishing Company; 1967.
Strauss Anselm, Corbin, Juliet (2008). Principles of Qualitative Research Methodology: Basic Theory, Procedures and Methods. [Translated by Buick Mohammadi]. Tehran: Institute of Humanities and Cultural Studies; 2015.
Burack, E. H., Spirituality in the workplace. Journal of organizational change management. 1999; 12 (4): 280-292.
RacoJ, Ohoitimur J, Sobon K. Spirituality: The Power of Entrepreneurship. JournalUniversity of Pittsburgh. 2014; 5: 780-800.
Sidamiri Nader, Hindijanifard Morteza. [Starting a Business in Iran (Persian)]. Tehran. Termeh Publications; 2015.
King J. E. and Williamson IO. Workplace religious expression religiosity andjob satisfaction: clarifying a relationship. Journal of management. Spirituality & religion. 2005; 2 (2): 173-198.
Brotheridge C.M. and Lee RTHand to work, heart to god: religiosity and organ izational behavior. Journal of management, spirituality & religion. 2007; 4 (3): 287-309.
MitroffI. I. Do not promote religion under the guise of spirituality. Organization. 2003; 10 (2): 375-382.
Neal JA. Spirituality in management education: a guide to resources. Journal of management education. 1997; 21 (1): 121-139.
Quatro S. Organizational spiritual normality as an influence on organizational culture and performance in Fortune500 firms. Lowa State University Doctoral Dissertation. (2002-01-01). https://dr.lib.iastate.edu/handle/20.500.12876/63375.
Kriger, M.P. and Hanson, B.J. A value-based paradigm for creating truly healthy organizations. Journal of organizational change management. 1999 12 (4): 302–317.
Khamenei, A. Spirituality and the Islamic Revolution.Tehran: Qadr Velayat Cultural and Artistic. 2012 Institute.
Elwell, F. The sociology of wright Mills, Qualitative Sociology 2002; 25 (3), 337-43.