عنوان مقاله [English]
نویسنده [English]چکیده [English]
This study examines the distinctions to differentiate the cognitive and social aspects of the work of science. The major difference between the social constructs discussed in this paper is the degree of institutionalization. This factor is important in relation to scientific development. Since science is essentially cognitive structures and it is operated by scientists at different levels, this study has been devoted to cognitive development and two parts of them were investigated. In the research specializations where cognitive and social integration are low, a large number data is generated by small gatherings that are not necessarily consistent and coherent. At the end of this paper, it is concluded that the identification of scientists from their research domains and their specializations should be integrated in the light of a literary analysis.