استعاره جدید بیوم ملی نوآوری در برابر استعاره نظام ملی نوآوری

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکترای مدیریت تکنولوژی، دانشکده مدیریت و حسابداری، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی واحد رودهن، تهران، ایران

2 استاد، گروه مدیریت فناوری اطلاعات،دانشکده مدیریت و اقتصاد، دانشگاه تربیت مدرس، تهران، ایران

3 استادیار دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، دانشکده مدیریت و حسابداری، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی واحد رودهن، تهران، ایران

چکیده

برخلاف تصور رایج مبنی بر اینکه استعاره ابزاری است که عموماً در زبان‌شناسی کاربرد دارد، این مفهوم مورد توجه محققان زیادی در راستای شناخت ابعاد و پیچیدگی‌های پدیده‌های جدید بر اساس ایجاد تناظر با معادل‌هایِ طبیعی موجود، به ویژه طی سه دهه گذشته در حوزه مطالعات نوآوری ، قرارگرفته است. از طرفی استعارۀ رایج برای تبیین فرایند نوآوری که همان نظام نوآوری است، در توصیف و تحلیل پدیده نوآوری دارای کاستی‌هایی بوده که همان کاستی‌ها در استعاره نظام ملی نوآوری هم وجود داشته است. از این رو در این مقاله، ضمن توضیح این کاستی‌ها، و در تکمیل استعاره جدیدتر اکوسیستم (بوم‌سازگان) نوآوری، استعاره جدیدی تحت عنوان «بیوم نوآوری» جهت پاسخ به ضعف‌های رویکرد نظام‌مند به نوآوری (نظام نوآوری) معرفی می‌شود. بنابراین استراتژی اصلی این پژوهش، استعاره‌پردازی است. نتایج تحلیلی پژوهش نشان می‌دهد که تمامی اصول هشتگانه اعتبارسنجی استعاره در بیوم نوآوری مورد تأئید است. بنابراین می‌توان گفت که بیوم ملی نوآوری می‌تواند چارچوبی مؤثر برای تحلیل فرایند نوآوری در سطح ملی و متعاقباً مبنایی جهت استخراج دلالت‌های سیاستیِ مناسب برای فضای نوآوری کشورها باشد. این استعاره جدید، مشکلات اساسی نظریه نظام ملی نوآوری نظیر تاکید بیش از اندازه بر مرز نظام و نقش دولت، غفلت از ابعاد زیست‌محیطی، و بی توجهی به مفاهیم همکاری، هم‌سازگاری و هم‌تکاملی در فضای نوآوری کشورها را تا حد زیادی برطرف می‌کند و علاوه بر این، روی چند اکوسیستمی بودن فضای نوآوری هر کشور به دلیل تنوع بخش‌ها و فناوری‌های مختلف، تاکید دارد.

تازه های تحقیق

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کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The new metaphor of IB versus NIS

نویسندگان [English]

  • negin taghizadeh 1
  • seyed sepehr ghazinoori 2
  • bita tabrizian 3
1 fbfd
2 m
3 rode
چکیده [English]

Contrary to popular belief that metaphor is commonly used in linguistics, this concept has attracted the attention of many researchers in order to understand the dimensions and complexities of new phenomena based on their correspondence with existing one. This approach has received a lot of attention in the field of innovation studies in the last three decades. On the other hand, the common metaphor for explaining the process of innovation, which is the system of innovation, in describing and analyzing the innovation phenomenon has shortcomings that the same shortcomings existed in the metaphor of the national innovation system. Therefore, in this paper, while explaining these shortcomings, and in completing the newer metaphor of the innovation ecosystem, a new metaphor to respond to the weaknesses of the systematic approach to innovation (innovation system) is introduced. Therefore, the main strategy of this research is metaphor analysis. The analytical results of the research show that all eight principles of metaphor validation in the IB are confirmed. Therefore, it can be said that the IB can be an effective framework for analyzing the innovation process and consequently a basis for extracting appropriate policy implications for the innovation space of countries. This new metaphor addresses the fundamental problems of national innovation system theory, such as overemphasis on the boundaries of the system and government intervention, neglect of environmental dimensions, and disregard for the concepts of co-operation, co-adaptation, and co-evolution in the innovation space of countries. It emphasizes the multi-ecosystem innovation space of each country due to the diversity of different sectors and technologies.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Metaphor analysis
  • IB
  • NIS
  • Innovation Process
  • Salehifar, M., Rahnamay Roodposhti, F., Chaharmahali, H. The Application of Ecology Theories in Finance. (Perian). Journal of Investment Knowledge, 2019; 8 (29): 137-158.
  • Moore, J. F. Predators and prey: a new ecology of competition. Harvard business review, 1993; 71 (3), 75-86.
  • Galateanu, E., & Avasilcai, S. Business ecosystem “reliability”. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences. 2014; 124: 312-321.
  • Malecki, E. J. Entrepreneurship and entrepreneurial ecosystems. Geography compass, 2018. 12 (3), e12359.
  • Audretsch, D. B., & amp; Feldman, M. R & amp; D Spillovers and the geography of innovation and production. The American Economic Review, 1996; 86 (3): 630-640.
  • Jackson D. What is an Innovation Ecosystem? 1st edition ed. Arlington, VA: National Science Foundation. 2019; 1-13.
  • Freeman, C. Technology policy and economic performance/ C. London, NY. 1987.
  • Nelson, R. R. (Ed.). [National innovation systems: a comparative analysis]. Oxford University Press on Demand; 1993.
  • Riahi, P., & Ghazinoory, S. S. An Introduction to the Innovation System (Broad Approach). (Persian) University Publication Center (1st Ed), Tehran; 2013.
  • Mobus, G. E., & Kalton, M. C. Behavior: System Dynamics. In Principles of Systems Science. Springer, NewYork, NY; 2015; 213-261.
  • Yaghoobi A. Biological metaphors and theories of classical sociology. Methodology of Social Sciences and Humanities, 2015; 21 (84): 117-141.
  • Morgan, G. Commentary: Beyond Morgan’s eight metaphors. Human relations. 2016; 69 (4): 1029-1042.
  • Simpson, J. A., & Weiner, E. S. C. (Eds.). The Oxford English dictionary (2nd ed., vols. 1-20). Oxford, England: Clarendon Press; 1989.
  • Metaphor, “Merriam-Webster online”.2021; available at: www.merriam-webster.com/
  • Morgan, G. Images of organization: The executive edition. Thousand Oaks, CA.1998.
  • Kövecses, Z. Context in cultural linguistics: The case of metaphor. In Advances in cultural linguistics. Springer, Singapore. 2017; 307-323.
  • Lakoff, G. The contemporary theory of metaphor; 1993.
  • Cornelissen, J., Gajewska-De Mattos, H., Piekari, R., & Welch, C. Writing up as a legitimacy seeking process: Alternative publishing recipes for qualitative research. Qualitative Organizational Research: Core Methods and Current Challenges, 2012; 185.
  • Cassell, C., & Lee, B. Driving, steering, leading, and defending: Journey and warfare metaphors of change agency in trade union learning initiatives. The Journal of Applied Behavioral Science, 2012; 48 (2): 248-271.
  • Harvey, M. Human resource management in Africa: Alice's adventures in wonderland. International Journal of Human Resource Management, 2002; 13 (7): 1119-1145.
  • Tourish D, Hargie O. Metaphors of failure and the failures of metaphor: A critical study of root metaphors used by bankers in explaining the banking crisis. Organization Studies. 2012 Aug; 33 (8): 1045-69.
  • Madhavaram, S., & McDonald, R. E. Knowledge-based sales management strategy and the grafting metaphor: Implications for theory and practice. Industrial Marketing Management, 2010; 39 (7): 1078-1087
  • Mohammed, S., Ferzandi, L., & Hamilton, K. Metaphor no more: A 15-year review of the team mental model construct. Journal of management, 2010; 36 (4): 876-910.
  • Gatti, L., & Catalano, T. The business of learning to teach: A Critical Metaphor Analysis of one Teacher's journey. Teaching and Teacher Education, 2015; 45: 149-160.
  • Hazy, J. K. More than a metaphor: Complexity and the new rules of management. The SAGE handbook of complexity and management, 2011; 524-540.
  • Hekkala, R., Stein, M. K., & Rossi, M. Metaphors in managerial and employee sensemaking in an information systems project. Information Systems Journal, 2018; 28 (1): 142-174.
  • Patriotta, G., & Brown, A. D. Sensemaking, metaphors and performance evaluation. Scandinavian Journal of Management, 2011; 27 (1): 34-43.
  • Chowdhury, R. An appreciation of metaphors in management consulting from the conceptual lens of holistic flexibility. Systems Research and Behavioral Science, 2021; 38 (1): 137-157.
  • Carli, L. L., & Eagly, A. H. Women face a labyrinth: An examination of metaphors for women leaders. Gender in Management: An International Journal. 2016.
  • Morgan, G. (2006). Images of Organization, updated 2nd edn. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.
  • Cardon, M. S., Zietsma, C., Saparito, P., Matherne, B. P., & Davis, C. A tale of passion: New insights into entrepreneurship from a parenthood metaphor. Journal of business venturing, 2005; 20 (1): 23-45.
  • Bager-Elsborg, A., & Greve, L. Establishing a method for analysing metaphors in higher education teaching: a case from business management teaching. Higher Education Research & Development, 2017; 38 (7): 1329-1342.
  • Cassell, C., & Bishop, V. Qualitative data analysis: Exploring themes, metaphors and stories. European Management Review, 2019; 16 (1): 195-207.
  • Danaee Fard H, Alvani S M. Metaphorical Reasoning Strategy in Building Theory: A New Theory of Administrative System. IQBQ. 2007; 11 (3): 107-135
  • Cornelissen, J. P. Making sense of theory construction: Metaphor and disciplined imagination. Organization Studies, 2006; 27 (11): 1579-1597.
  • Mohammadi, A., Tafazzoli, Z. Design As … A Re-Reading of ‘Design’s’ Conceptual Metaphors. Soffeh, 2018; 28 (4): 5-24.
  • 2020. Available at
    https://www.khanacademy.org/science/high-school-biology/hs-ecology/hs-introduction-to-ecology/a/ecological-levels-from-individuals-to-ecosystems.
  • 2020. Available at https://www.biologydiscussion.com/ecology/ecological-levels-of-organisation-environment/51830.
  • 2020. Available at
    https://www.nationalgeographic.org/activity/ecological-relationships/
  • Durst, Susanne & Poutanen, Petro. Success factors of innovation ecosystems - Initial insights from a literature review, Conference Paper, 2013.CO-CREATE ,1-13.
  • Tansley, A. G. The use and abuse of vegetational concepts and terms. Ecology,1935; 16 (3): 284-307.
  • https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/ecosystem.
  • https://www.oxfordlearnersdictionaries.com/definition/english/ecosystem
  • Miller, G. T., & Spoolman, S. E. Environmental problems, their causes, and sustainability. Living in the Environment: Concepts, Connections, and Solutions. 2009.
  • Gobble, M. M. Charting the innovation ecosystem. Research-Technology Management, 2014; 57 (4): 55-59.
  • Adner, R. Ecosystem as structure: An actionable construct for strategy. Journal of management, 2017; 43 (1): 39-58.
  • Hajikhani, Arash, Emergence and dissemination of ecosystem concept in innovation studies: A systematic literature review study, 2017, 50th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences, 5227-5236.
  • Differencebetween, 2020. Available at http://www.differencebetween.net/science/nature/ difference-between-biome-and-ecosystem/
  • Roxburgh, S., & Noble, I. Terrestrial Ecosystems. In S. A. Levin (Ed.), Encyclopedia of Biodiversity (Second Edition). Waltham: Academic Press.2001. 128-135.
  • 2017. Available at
    https://sciencing.com/difference-between-community-ecosystem-5776576.html
  • Isenberg, Daniel, The Entrepreneurship Ecosystem Strategy as a New Paradigm for Economic Policy: Principles for Cultivating Entrepreneurship, 2011, The Babson Entrepreneurship Ecosystem Project, 1-13.
  • Rao, B., & Jimenez, B. A comparative analysis of digital innovation ecosystems. In 2011 Proceedings of PICMET'11: Technology Management in the Energy Smart World (PICMET). 2011; 1-12.
  • Fetters, M., Greene, P. G., & Rice, M. P. (Eds.). The development of university-based entrepreneurship ecosystems: Global practices. Edward Elgar Publishing. 2010.
  • Frenkel, A., & Maital, S. Mapping national innovation ecosystems: Foundations for policy consensus. Edward Elgar Publishing. 2014.
  • Lorré, J. P., Carpentier, M., & Fabre, O. COLLABORATIVE DISTRIBUTED FRAMEWORK FOR SME ECOSYSTHEMS: THE GROUP-BUYING PORTAL USE-CASE. IFAC Proceedings Volumes, 2006; 39 (3): 23-27.
  • Nachira, F., Nicolai, A., Dini, P., Le Louarn, M., & León, L. R. 2007. Digital business ecosystems. European Commission.
  • Tejero, A., Pau, I., & León, G. Analysis of the dynamism in university-driven innovation ecosystems through the assessment of entrepreneurship role. 2019. IEEE Access, 7, 89869-89885.
  • Fartash, K., Hayrapetian, T. In defence of the linear model: An essay. (Persian). Rahyaft, 2020; 30 (78): 107-132. doi: 10.22034/rahyaft.2020.13809
  • Godin B. The linear model of innovation: The historical construction of an analytical framework. Science, Technology, & Human Values. 2006 Nov; 31 (6): 639-67.
  • Vaad, A. Science and technology policy (Persian). Rahyaft, 1998; 8(18)
  • Wieczorek, A. J., & Hekkert, M. P. Systemic instruments for systemic innovation problems: A framework for policy makers and innovation scholars. Science and public policy, 2012; 39 (1): 74-87.
  • Ghazinoory, S., & Ghazinoori, S. Science, technology and innovation policy making; an introduction. (Persian). Tehran: Tarbiyat Modares University Press. 2012.
  • Hellsmark, H., & Söderholm, P. Innovation policies for advanced biorefinery development: Key considerations and lessons from Sweden. Biofuels, Bioproducts and Biorefining, 2017; 11 (1): 28-40.
  • Ghazinoory S, Nasri S, Ameri F, Montazer GA, Shayan A. Why do we need ‘Problem-oriented Innovation System (PIS)’for solving macro-level societal problems? Technological Forecasting and Social Change. 2020 Jan 1; 150: 119749.
  • Adner R. Match your innovation strategy to your innovation ecosystem. Harvard business review. 2006 Apr 1; 84 (4): 98.
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