عنوان مقاله [English]
The mismatch between the supply and demand of the labor market has always been a global concern and the focus of policymakers and labor market researchers. Skill mismatching refers to a mismatch between the current skills or those offered to the labor market and the skills that are required by the labor market. Furthermore, mismatching can be used to refer to situations in which individuals are under or over-qualified for a job. The mismatch is more especially regarding the knowledge workforce and has always challenged businesses and policymakers. But what increases this gap is the occurrence of the fourth industrial revolution and the emergence of disruptive technologies, which accelerates the mismatch of skills and, as a result, the imbalance between the supply and demand of skills. In fact, the emergence of new technologies and digital transformations have led to the obsolescence of many jobs and related skills and increased demand for new technological skills. Thus, different initiatives are proposed by researchers and experts to solve the problem of the mismatch between the supply and demand of knowledge workers. Several solutions have been proposed in the literature to cope with the problem of mismatch. They have been mostly proposed from a policymaking perspective based on direct governmental measures. These solutions include investment and creating opportunities to learn new skills, releasing detailed information on the jobs and skill visions, modification of the bureaucratic structure of education systems, cooperation between educational and research institutions and employers to identify the required trends and skills for education, and the participation of leader companies for the training, apprenticeship, and skill enhancement of job. However, such solutions mostly refer to measures with direct government involvement based on the supply and demand aspect of the labor market. The reduced involvement of governments and increased involvement of sharing economies and platforms are consequences of Industry 4.0 and the digital economy. The roles of new business models in employment and human resources and the use of platforms and digital business models to help alleviate the skill gap in the new labor market have rarely been considered. The support of HR Techs in the labor market is one of these new solutions. HR Techs are new business models emerging from the transformative nature of digital technologies, acting as a bridge between what technological advances enable and what the market demands, transforming the traditional supply-based economy. The importance of HR Techs is due to the increasing demand for freelancing in the digital economy and the ability of platforms to mediate it, the important role of platforms in educating and empowering users, and creating a balance between supply and demand. In the current study, we try to provide a policy framework for matching the supply and demand knowledge workers by promoting the activities of HR Techs. For this purpose, 14 semi-structured interviews were conducted with experts in this field after reviewing the background and identifying some related initiatives. We tried to get the opinions of experts from relevant institutions in this field, including managers of HR Techs, managers of companies that benefit from the services of HR Techs, managers of relevant government institutions and policymakers, researchers, and academic experts in the field of job and Employment. As a result of the analysis of the data from the interviews, 21 sub-themes related to the activity of HR Techs to facilitate the matching of supply and demand were identified and categorized into six groups: culture, infrastructure and information systems, laws and regulations, skills and career development, business conditions and international cooperations in Iran’s labor market. Finally, by integrating the findings of the research background and conducting interviews with experts, a policy framework has been presented to match the supply and demand of knowledge workers by supporting the activities of HR Techs. In the proposed framework, those initiatives that have a political aspect and the government can help match the supply and demand of knowledge workers by implementing them are noteworthy. These solutions are grouped into three categories: policies that promote supply-related activities, policies that promote demand-related activities, and policies that directly help match supply and demand by supporting HR Techs. In addition to integrating the strategies for improving the supply and demand aspects, what distinguishes the proposed framework of this study from previous studies is the attention to the third category of strategies under the title of facilitating the matching of supply and demand by supporting HR Techs, which also act as an intermediate link between the other two categories. According to the proposed framework, the government, in addition to paying attention to the simultaneous development and promotion of the supply and demand of knowledge workers to keep up with digital developments and Industry 4.0, should provide the necessary infrastructure to match supply and demand through the development of HR Techs. Support, investment, and participation of the government and educational institutions in creating infrastructure and designing, preparing, and approving the content of digital learning platforms for new and specialized skills is one of these supportive initiatives.