عنوان مقاله [English]
Today, the global approach is clear in the movement towards a knowledge-based economy. The term knowledge-based economy, which has been emphasized by the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) in the development strategy of nations, is indicative of the role of knowledge and technology in economic development. Countries need the development of technology and innovation in the direction of progress and sustainable economic development. In this regard, various mechanisms such as university science and technology parks have been taken into consideration. In other words, in countries where economic development is based on the encouragement of innovation and technology and the commercialization of advanced technologies, the establishment of science and technology parks is considered one of the basic solutions to create a culture of innovation and the growth of knowledge-based businesses. The role of science and technology parks as a part of innovation infrastructure to realize activities such as technology transfer, commercialization of research findings, and attracting participation and reducing the risk of start-up companies and businesses is well evident. Science parks are the link between the university and the industry, and while identifying the research needs of the industry, they turn the potential applied research of the university into an actual one in the industry.
This study aimed to investigate University Science and Technology Park as a key factor in promoting national economic development. In order to deepen the subject, China’s experience in technology and innovation and the success factors of China Science Park were explored.
This research is practical in terms of purpose and has been done with a qualitative paradigm. The research sample was China’s experiences in the field of science and technology parks. According to the scope of the topic and information sources, first, a list of various keywords related to the topic was prepared, and keywords such as higher education, science park, technology park, innovation area, university companies, national and regional development, national innovation system along with keyword China was selected and searched in scientific and informational databases such as Science Direct, Scopus, Google Scholar, ISC, Elsevier and scientific journals. Also, the websites of science and technology parks such as Tsinghua Science Park, Shenzhen Software Park, Baoshan Science Park, Wuhan Hi-Tech District, Zhongguancun Science Park, Jiang Science Park, and Zhangjiang Hi-Tech Park were studied. In this way, by searching documents, articles and related scientific documents, which included more than 40 scientific documents, articles, theses, and the site of the Chinese University Science Park, a documentary review was done. Also, by compiling Data and information findings were drawn using the analytical descriptive method and content analysis of documents and articles,
One of the most important success factors in the path of a knowledge-based economy is the creation and development of smart infrastructures in the national innovation system. Science and technology parks are one of the most essential components of the national innovation system and the connecting link between universities and industry in different countries. They are considered an effective mechanism for promoting innovation and developing start-up businesses. The objectives of this study were: investigating the drivers of the establishment of China’s science and technology parks, investigating the conditions for accepting companies in China’s science and technology parks, investigating the drivers of the success of science and technology parks in China, and examining the outputs of China’s science and technology parks.
The findings of the case study of China showed that the University Science Park was a good place to explore the relationship between government, university, and industry in China. Since the 1980s, the Chinese government has started to direct science and technology towards the market and has designed new policies to diversify the financial resources of universities. With government support from higher education and the implementation of targeted plans and programs, including the development of science and technology parks and the encouragement and support of innovation and technology, it succeeded in achieving significant economic progress. Promoting the commercialization of university technology and establishing a region for the management of university spin-off companies were among the primary goals of establishing a university science park in China. The results indicated that among the factors that influence the success of science parks in China were: governmental support, scientific and economic environment of innovation, the governance and management of park, stakeholders, and infrastructures.
According to the studies, one of the success factors of science and technology parks is providing appropriate services to the companies in the park, empowering the companies in the park to successfully enter the national, regional and international markets, and appropriate support mechanisms for companies. As a result, universities should try to successfully attract innovative and entrepreneurial academics by providing appropriate and necessary facilities, infrastructure and support. Clear and supportive guidelines and laws can motivate the presence of innovative and start-up companies in university science and technology parks. Creating suitable motivational and supportive platforms for moving from idea to commercialization and technology transfer should be given special attention.